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Selasa, 9 Ogos 2011

Maya and Malay

As salam

Baru-baru ini saya telah menemui satu artikel menakjubkan semasa men'google' secara tentang bangsa Maya. Artikel ini adakah petikan dari Journal of Polynesian Society Volume 7, No. 2, June 1898. Artikel tersebut boleh dilayari melalui link berikut

Artikel tersebut adalah seperti berikut.


MANY reasons have been urged by men of science in America of late years for the belief that some of the native races of that continent are immigrant races. Professor Cyrus Thomas is one of these, and he has well shown in his numerous publications on the subject that much evidence has been adduced in support of that hypothesis, quite apart from any study of the languages spoken in either the old or new world.

In regard to his comparisons of Maya with Malayan, there are many striking similarities of sound and sense shown in the preceding paper. Some of them appear doubtful, but still more of them will appear doubtful to those who do not make a special study of comparisons of dialects, and are not accustomed to the fantastic garb in which a travelled word sometimes appears. The Maori word rakau, a tree, does not appear to be a relative of the Melanesian ie, a tree, but its flight has been followed (rakau, akau, kau, kayu, kai, kei, kie, ie); nor does the Maori word ruru, an owl, show its accustomed face under Malagasy vorondolo, but its masquerade has been discovered.

My small work in this matter will be to show that Professor Thomas has not dropped upon a chance word in Malay when he compares it with Maya. It is true that some of his Malay consists of introduced words—Sanscrit, &c.—but that is of little consequence. His point is to prove that the word is Asiatic, or resembles an Asian form. If he does so the shot tells. I shall endeavour to show, by help of Malay Archipelago, or Oceanic words, that Professor Thomas's clients (the Mayas) are known on the great Water-way. Space will only allow me to deal with a few of these.

Maya puk, a hill. Cf. Maori puke, a hill; Philippines (Bisaya) bukid, a mountain, (Bicol) buquid, a mountain; Malay bukit, a hill; Magindano puked, a mountain. The root is probably ✓ pu, to swell, - 102 as found in Maori pu, a heap, pupu, to bubble up, puku, a belly. This latter shows a similar form to the Indo-European root bug, to bow, to bend, to bulge. See Maya buz.

Maya pal, a child, a boy. Malay bala, people, from Sanscrit bâla, an infant, unwise, uninstructed, a male, an army. Cf. Sanscrit bala and balak, a child, an infant, a male. Balak becomes the Malagasy zanaka, a child, through Malay anak, a child, and hence probably the Melanesian wanakat, a child.

Maya na, mother. Malay forms are, for “mother,” (Perak Semang) na, (Rotti) ina, (Timor) aina. Cf. Maori nana, to nurse; Fijian na and nana, words used in addressing a mother; Sikayana nana, mother; Guaham nana, mother; British New Guinea inana, mother; Melanesian (Lifu) nina, mother. The Sanscrit is ni, mother.
Maya ni, the nose. Tzotzil (allied to Maya) ni, the nose. The following words mean “nose”: Melanesian (Sesake) nisu, (Api) nisu, (Ysabel) nehu: Malay Islands (North Celebes) niyun, (Bouru) nien and nieni, (Ké Islands) nirun, (Iranun) nirong, (Nias Islands) nihu; Maori ihu; Samoan isu. The Sanscrit naso, the nose, has coincidence in Aymara (Peru) nasa, the nose, whilst the Formosan noss-nossa, to smell, may be related.

Maya ha, water. Cf. Maori hani, water; Guaham hanum, water; Burman ya, water; Chinese frontier of Thibet chah, water.

Maya taab, salt. Malay (Sulu) taub, tide, salt water; Pelew Islands thab, salt water.

Maya baat, an axe. Motu pataia, to beat; Ponape patkul, an axe; Pingelap patsakal, an axe; Malay (Sunda) patik, a small axe, patek, to strike a stringed instrument; Maori patu, a club or stone axe; Tongan batutu, to beat. The Maya baat, an axe, and batluk, a hoe, compare with Malay paat and Bugis paak, a chisel.

Maya caan, sky, heaven; kan, yellow; kin, day, sun. Cf. Formosa kanas, sky; Paumotuan kanakana, shining, radiant; Maori ka, to burn, kanapu, bright, shining, kanaku, fire. The words on this base appear widely spread—cf. Sanscrit kans and kanc, to shine, kancana, gold, kansya, brass; Malay kuning, yellow, kunit, turmeric; Japanese kin, gold; Kusaie kan, yellow; Nukuoro kanonga, yellow. The Sanscrit roots kan and chan, to shine, and words such as ahan, day, show kinship with Maori hana, to glow, to shine, and hina (for dhina), to glimmer. Cf. also North-east Bengal (Bodo) shan, day, sun; and on the Chinese border Thibet khen, sky—the last word probably related to Chinese tien, heaven.

Maya col, to rob, to steal. Ponape kol, to seize, kuli, to rob. This shows the connection with Malay churi, to steal, as spoken of by Professor Thomas. The Malay word is from the Sanscrit chur, to steal.

Maya cop, to fold, to curve, to twist as a serpent. Cf. Maori kopi, doubled together as by a hinge or joint, kope, to bind in flax, as eels - 103 before cooking; Marquesan kopi, to squeeze, to press; Hawaiian (k lost in this dialect), ope, to tie up in a bundle; Ponape kope, a bundle, anything folded.

Maya kab, a hand, arm, branch. Cf. Maori kapu, the hollow of the hand; Paumotuan kapukapu, the palm of the hand. Maori kapo, to snatch, and kapakapa, to flutter; Samoan 'apa'apa, the fin of a fish; Tongan kabakaba, the side-fins of a shark, (b) to flicker, to flutter, kabakau, wings; Malay (Magindano) kapakapa, a fan; Melanesian (Ulawa) apaapa, a wing, (Malanta) apaapa, a wing (apaapa ni ai, wings of trees, i.e., leaves; apaapa ni manu, wings of birds). Probably the last few words show that the true Malay comparative is gagap, to stutter, to sputter, but tangkab or tangkap (menangkab), to catch, seize, shows relation with tangan, the hand; the latter close to the Polynesian tango, to handle. The Pelew Islands kam, the hand, Tagal kamai, hand, Bikol kamot, the hand show one form, while the Yap kabai, to hold, and the Espiritu Santo gavegave, the hand, show another, viz., kam and kap, and point to a root kamp or kamph, meaning hand and grasp. The Semitic form in Asia is like Hebrew kaph, a hand (palm of hand, or bent hand), or Arabic kabza, to grasp, but Arabic has also khams, the hand. The Indo-European root is kap, to seize, as in Latin capere, to seize.

Maya tanah, territory. The name of the Melanesian island Tana means the soil, the earth. The Kian Dyak has tanah, earth, soil, Efatese tan, Ladrone Islands tano, Gilbert Islands tano, German New Guinea tano, British New Guinea tano, Malagasy tani, all meaning earth, soil. At Moreton Bay, New Guinea, the earth is ta, as in Sanscrit. In India the Khond word for earth is tana.

Maya taa, excrement. Samoan and Tongan tae, excrement; Malay tai, excrement; Malagasy tay; Fijian da. The Fijian also has de, excrement, which (as original te) compares with Formosan che, Ponape che, excrement. The cha in the Quichua ucha, excrement, is probably related to Maya taa.

Maya tab or tabnah, to bind, to tie. Professor Thomas is almost certainly right in comparing this with Malay tambat, to bind, tie, as this word appears to be related to the Polynesian tapa, native cloth; Samoan tapa, one of the white borders of a garment; Maori tapa, the border, edge; Tongan taba, the border of native cloth; Malay tapi, the edge, border; the Lampong tapis, a garment (their only garment, like the Malay sarong); and Kisa tapi, cloth. The Macassar tamba, to clothe, compares with above Malay word tambat, to bind, tie. The original root is the sound-word tap, because the bark cloth (tapa) was beaten out with a hammer, from India to Easter Island.

Maya tiib, to spread. Cf. Maori tipitipi, to spread rapidly, tipi, to skim along the surface, to make “ducks and drakes”; Samoan tipi, to play “ducks and drakes”; Tahitian atipi and matipi, to skim a stone along the water; Fijian tibi, to flash as lightning.
- 104

Maya tal, supreme. The Malay word taala, supreme, with which tal is compared by Professor Thomas, is the adopted Arabic word ta'ala. The Maori word tara, the point of a spear, peak of a mountain; courage, mettle, has resemblance to Sanscrit tara, surpassing, excelling; taras, strength, energy; tarasvin, courageous. To the Maori word tara, a peak, the Ponapean tol, a hill, and Fijian tholo, a mountain, may be related, but probably not.

Maya tuchi, a remittance; something sent. Maori tuku, to send; Samoan tu'u, (for tuku), to send forth, a payment; Tonga tuki, to make a present at a funeral, tukiga, the place to which a thing is struck or driven (Maori tuki, to strike, and probably Malay tukul, to strike, to beat).

Maya ahau, a king; noble. Professor Thomas has noticed the Polynesian hau, a king, but (I think) is mistaken that hau has any relation to fatu or hatu, lord. The latter is the Maori uhatu, and through patu and batu is related to Indo-European pat, a lord. See under batah. Tongan hau, a reigning prince, a conqueror; Hawaiian hau, the highest rank of chiefs; Maori whaka-hau (whaka=causative prefix), to command. In an ancient Maori pedigree the Supreme Being is called Te Ahau o te Rangi, “the Ahau of Heaven. Cf. Sanscrit hava, order, command; Ponape chau, a king; Japanese o, a king.

Maya az, vapour. Melanesian words for “smoke” are (Savo) azuazu, (Mota) asu, (Vanua Lava, Mosina) as, (Aurora) asu, (Lepers Island) asu. In Samoan asu, smoke, asuasu, haze, mist; Tongan ahu, smoke; Maori au, smoke; New Guinea (Mafoor) aas, smoke. Perhaps related to Sanscrit asau, a cloud, or through the idea of “breath” with the root as, “to be.”

Maya chuchum, a nail. Fiji kuku, a finger- or toe-nail; Tagal cuco, a nail, claw; Pampang cucu; Malay kuku, a claw, kukur, to scratch; Maori kuku, to nip, maikuku and matikuku, finger-nails.
Maya ku, a deity; holy, divine. Hawaiian Ku, the supreme deity of the Trinity. This is in New Zealand Tu, the war-god. The Maori word tua is a religious word sometimes used for “god,” and signifying undefined power and authority. (See White's “Ancient History of the Maori,” vol. i, p. 6.) Probably Malay tuan, deity, is related, since it is supposed to be derived from old Malay tua, an elder, a respected, aged man. Cf. Maori matua, mature, adult, grown up.

Maya lacach, flat. Rightly compared by Professor Thomas with Malay rata, flat, level. Intermediary forms are Hawaiian laka, tame; Maori rata, tame, gentle; and Matu rata, even, level.

Maya bul, a ball, a sphere; Tzotzil bolbol, a boy's top. Cf. Maori poro, anything round, as found in compounds. porowhito, a circle; porotiti, a disc, porotaka, round, &c. Tahitian poroaa, a wheel; Paumotuan porotata, a sphere, porotaka, circumference. Polo is the Sanscrit plural of polowa, the earth. See under uil, moon.
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Maya uch, a louse. Hawaiian uku, a louse; Malanta u'u, a louse; Formosan ocho and acho, a louse; Nala uku, a louse; Matabello utu, a louse; Maori kutu. The Maya uth, mosquito, is probably Tzotzil uz, mosquito. The Quichua (Peru) has achta, louse.

Maya buz, a hump, a swelling. Sunda busung, having a swollen belly; Melanesia (Santa Maria, Vanua Lava, &c.) vus, a bow; Maori pu, a heap, puhi, to swell, to blow out, to inflate; Malay ambus, to blow (cf. Maori apu, a squall of wind). The word is probably allied to the puk root or bug root, as in Maori puku, the belly. See under puk, a hill.

Maya coch, a braggart. The Malay kochak and kachak, boastful, is probably allied to Ponape kokoch and kakach, boastful.

Maya lap and lapah, to grasp, seize, rob. (Cf. Hawaiian lapulapu, to handle, to feel over, to tie up, to bind or tie into bundles, lapu, a night monster, to be possessed of a spirit; Tongan lapa, to assassinate, laba, to burst suddenly upon one, to arrest unexpectedly; Fijian laba-ta, to strike treacherously, to murder; Maori rapi, to clutch,rapu, to search for, to squeeze; New Hebrides (Aneityum) rap-rap, to grope for, to seek in the dark, arahpan, to seize, arop, to seize; Malay rampas, to rob, raba, to grope; Mangarevan rapu, to squeeze, to beat, to kill; Macassar rapi, to attack, to catch hold of; Bugis rapai, to plunder; Malagasy roba, stolen, taken by violence.

Tzotzil pepem, a butterfly. Maori pepepe, a butterfly; Samoan pepe, a butterfly; Fiji bebe, a butterfly; Malay (Morella of Amboyna) pepeul; Melanesia (Whitsuntide Island) pepe, (Santa Maria) pep and beb; Rotuma pep; Ulawa pepe, &c., &c.

Maya susic, the nipple of the breast. Samoan susu, the breast; Fijian suthu, the breasts, to suck; Brumer Islands susuga, the nipple; Malay (Kayan) usok, the breast, (Waigiou) sus, the breast, &c., &c.
Maya u or uil, the moon; ualak, to revolve. Tzotzil hu, the moon. Other American forms are Quichua pura, Chili puran (also puyell, to shine). Malay bulan, moon; Borneo (Iranun) ulan; Solomon Islands vula, moon; Fiji vula; Ponape pul; Yap pul; Pelew Islands buyul. Cf. Ponape ueli, to go round, to change; Serwatty Islands woli, the moon; Chinese yueh, moon; and Chinese border of Thibet yoliang, moon; Nepaul oula, moon; Tidore ora. The Polynesian representatives of Fijian vula, moon, and vulavula, white, are universally pula or pura, to shine, and ula or ura, to glow.

Maya puc, to beat; paxal, to break; paxah, to strike a musical instrument; bok, bokha, to beat (all on same root). Cf. Maori paki, to slap, pakaru, to break to pieces, pakore, broken, pakuku, to knock repeatedly; Tongan baki, to snap, to break off. Pak is probably a sound-word.

Maya pol, the head with the hair; hool, the head. Tagal bolbol, the hair; Sulu Islands pulu, hair, bulbul, fine hair; Bouru bolou; Amblau boloi; Baju bolo, hair; Maori huruhuru, coarse hair, uru, the - 106 head; Tahitian huruhuru, hair, wool, uru, the human skull; Sulu Islands o, the head.

Maya pay, the sea coast. Paumotuan pae, a shore, a bank, papae, littoral, belonging to the shore; Bicol baybay, the beach, the shore; Maori pae, the horizon, to be cast on shore; Tagāl baibain, the beach.

Maya olah, will, desire. Samoan ola, to be hale, prosperous, to thrive; Tongan ola, anything obtained after search has been made, to succeed; Mangareva ora, life, health, to save oneself in a difficulty; Malay olah, conduct, behaviour.

Maya pach, the shoulder. Maori pakihiwi, the shoulder (hiwi here probably means “ridge, top of a thing”); Hawaiian (loses k) poohiwi, the shoulder; Rarotongan (loses h) pakiiwi, the shoulder; Mangarevan pakuhiwi, shouler.

Maya napil, union, connection. Samoan nape, to be entangled; Maori nape, to weave; Tahitian nape, sinnet; Tongan nabe, one way of plaiting sinnet. Cf. Sanscrit nabhi, the close connection of relatives, from root nah, to bind, to tie.

Maya mach, to benumb; mak, to corrode, to wear away. Maori maki, a sick person, an invalid, makimaki, a cutaneous disease, mangi, weakened, unnerved; Samoan maki, sickness, to be ill; Rarotongan maki, sick, ill, a wound, a sore, an evil, a fault; Paumotuan maki, to perish, to decline, maki-te-kakai, cancer; Futuna magimagi, ulcerated.

Maya mum, to chew. Tahitian mama, to chew or masticate food; Samoan mama, a mouthful; Hawaiian mama, to chew or work over in the mouth; Tongan mama, to chew, &c., &c.

Maya makah, to eat soft things. Silong makau, to eat; Mas Islands mangha, to eat; Balau Dyak makai, to eat; Marquesan maka, a mouthful, a piece, a morsel; Samoan maga, a mouthful of kava root chewed ready for mixing with water to make the beverage kava; Hawaiian mana (n=ny or k), to chew food for infants (children were thus fed by taking food from the mother's mouth and putting it into that of the child); Malay mamak, to chew, and makan, to devour. See under mama.

Maya lop, to fold. Fijian lobi, to fold, when a thing is folded engthwise and breadthwise, as wide cloth; Hawaiian lopio, to bend over, as in going to sleep when sitting; Maori ropi, to close, as a door; Paumotuan ropiropi, to pack up, to make into a bundle, (b) to shut up; Aneityum aroparop, closed, as the eyelids; Malay lipat, to fold; Javanese lapit, to fold.

Maya hol, the bark of trees. Cf. Hawaiian hole, to peel off, to flay, to skin, uhole. to peel the bark from a tree; Maori hore, to peel, husks, peelings; Teor holit, bark or skin; Madura koli, bark or skin; Kusaie kolo and kuli; Fijian kuli; Malay kulit, skin, kulit-kayu, bark; Maori kiri, skin.

Maya cot, a wall; an entrenchment. The Malay, Javanese, Bugis, &c., kota and kuta, a fort, are all probably from the Sanscrit.
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Maya cap, to compress. Tongan kabikabi, to wedge, abiabi, crowded; Maori kapi, to be filled up, occupied, apiapi, close together, crowded; Hawaiian (loses k) api, to gather together, as people, to compress, as baggage; Paumotuan kapi, to be full, replete; Malay kapit, a companion, apit, squeezed together (cf. Maori kapiti, close together, apiti, side by side); Tahitian (loses k) apiti, a couple, or two joined together.

Maya batah, a chief. Bismarck Archipelago patuan, a chief; British New Guinea tau-bada or iofio-bada, a chief; Malay paduka, lord, master, pati, lord (the latter from Sanscrit); Polynesian patu or fatu, lord.
Maya ain, ayin, or ahin, an alligator. Pelew Islands aius, an alligator; British New Guinea ai-tahi, an alligator; Punan Dyak buai; Rotti Island bais; Melano Dyak baia. Perhaps related to Sanscrit ahi, a snake. The original snake was a “footed snake.’ See Biblical legend “on thy belly shalt thou go” (henceforth), strengthened by biologists finding rudimentary leg bones hidden within the python's flesh.

Maya holah, to bore. Hawaiian hula, to bore a hole, huli, to turn Fijian voli, to turn round, volivoli, to revolve; Malagasy voryvory, round, circular, boribory, round; Maori huri, to turn round, uhiri, to to twist, wiri, to bore.

Maya lapp, to lacerate. Maori rapi, to scratch, taurapirapi, to claw one another, ripi, to cut; Tahitian rapu, to scratch, to pinch, to squeeze; Macassar rapi, to attack.

Maya kul, sacred. See ku. Maori kura, sacred, a certain sacred stone; Mangarevan kura, red, royal, divine; Tahitian (loses k) ura, red feathers, formerly sacred to the gods.

Maya chaam, the molar teeth. Perhaps allied to Sanscrit root cham, to eat. Maori kame, to eat, kamu, to eat, kome, to champ the jaws, tame, to eat; Paumotuan kamikami, to smack the lips; Matu kamu, to taste; Indian (Nepal) cha, to eat; (Munipuri) chao; Burman cha; Georgian cham, to eat; Timor atamu, mutamu, nutamu, to eat.

Maya bolay or boolay, a tiger. Southern India (Malabar) puli, a tiger, (Tamil) puli, a tiger; Central India (Keikadi) puli, a tiger, (Gondi) pulli, a tiger.

Maya cay or cai, fish. Siamese ka, fish; Annamese ka; Central India (Bhumij) hai, (Kolami) kei, (Naikude) keiye; Ancient Assyrian kha, fish, as in the cuneiform character for “Nineveh,”fish.

Maya oc, the foot; Tzotzil gkok, the foot. Rotti Island eik, the foot; Amboyna aika, the foot; Burmah (Kami) akho, the foot, (Khyeng) kako, (Mru) khouk; Chinese (Canton) keuk; N.E. Bengal (Dhimal) khokoi; Pelew Islands koki; Malay kaki.

Maya miz and mez, a cat. Rotti and Timor mea, a cat; Rotti meo asu, a tiger (Malay asu, a dog); Sunda meong, a cat or tiger; British New Guinea simai and chimai, a cat; South Celebes miao; - 108 Bugis meau; Chinese maou; Khond miyo; Annam meo. All these latter probably from a cat's cry.

If Maya chem, a canoe, is allied to Venezuela champau, a canoe, cf. Malay sampan, a canoe.
The Tzotzil is a very interesting dialect. Some of its words appear allied to Indo-European roots—notably  
 nuk, neck; gna, to know; kib, a jar; ton, a stone; ghat, to tear.

If we only consider the above list (even without taking into account Professor Thomas's numerous other examples), the number of coincidences of sound and sense is remarkable. It cannot be by accident that so many Maya words resemble those of Western people. Such a condition can only arise on one of two hypotheses. Either Maya and Malay are on the same linguistic stock, or they hold numerous loan-words. That they are on the same base it is not possible to say without much more investigation. If it can be proved that the vital words, such as sun, moon, star, house, fire, water, father, mother, son, sea, &c., &c., are identical, then (and still more if the numerals coincide) it is almost certain that the Maya tongue is an emigrant from Asia. Although we may not be sure that coincidence of sound and sense argues relationship in language, it must be remembered that it was in this way, viz., by the likeness of sound between Sanscrit bhratar and English “brother,” Sanscrit pitar and Latin pater, that attention was first called to the unity of the Indo-European speech. After that, due investigation followed.

My own impression is that many of the coincidences are in loan-words. They have been adopted either by Mayans in their migrations, or by Asiatics and Polynesians from Mayans. Perhaps, however, they belong to that universal primeval language that some of us believe in, but which belief faints before the labour of comparison with the words ten syllables long of the North American vocabularies. It seems certain that the Mayans used words to be found either in the vernaculars or as radices of Asia and Europe. Even if we leave out what may be mere sound-words (onomatopoetic), such as pat or pak, to strike, still Mayan words such as those for hill, bow (bulge), water, sky, king, chief, earth, hand, breast, wall, shore, fort, sacred, fish, tiger, &c., could scarcely resemble their Oriental equivalents through fortuitous coincidence. It is well worthy the study of American linguists to ascertain the true relationship (if any) between the languages of West and East.

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